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暴雨灾害  2016, Vol. 35 Issue (2): 109-118    DOI:
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华南前汛期持续性暴雨统计特征及环流分型研究
徐明1, 2,赵玉春2, 3,王晓芳1,汪小康1
(1.中国气象局武汉暴雨研究所,武汉430205;2. 中国气象科学研究院灾害天气重点实验室,北京100081;3. 厦门市气象局海峡气象开放实验室,厦门361012)
Statistical characteristics and circulation pattern of sustained torrential rain during the pre-flood season in South China for recent 53 years
XU Ming1, 2, ZHAO Yuchun2, 3, WANG Xiaofang1, WANG Xiaokang1
(1. Institute of Heavy Rain, CMA, Wuhan 430205; 2. State Key Laboratory of Severe Weather, Chinese Academy of Meteorological Sciences,Beijing 100081; 3. Laboratory of Straits Meteorology, Xiamen Meteorological Bureau, Xiamen 361012)
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摘要 利用1961—2013 年华南区域305 个国家级气象台站日降水资料、1980—2013 年5—6 月NCEP/CFSR 再分析资料(分辨率0.5 ×0.5 )等,定义华南前汛期持续性暴雨和暴雨持续日数,分析近53 a 华南前汛期持续性暴雨特征及其大尺度环流形势;归纳有利于华南前汛期持续性暴雨发生的4 种典型环流类型。结果表明: (1) 华南前汛期持续性暴雨过程主要集中在5—6 月,并存在准20 a 振荡周期;1960 年代前半段6 月暴雨次数多,1960 年代末期到1980 年代5 月暴雨次数明显增加,1990 年代至2013 年暴雨主要出现在6 月,2006 年后5 月暴雨次数逐渐增加;暴雨过程持续日数一般3~4 d,超过10 d 以上的单次过程仅4 次。(2) 华南前汛期持续性暴雨分为东亚槽底型、两脊一槽型、多涡旋型和纬向型,东亚槽底型和两脊一槽型次数相对较多,主要发生在5 月下旬—6 月下旬;纬向型次数最少,主要在5 月上旬—6 月初。(3) 各型持续性暴雨过程500 hPa 中高纬地区环流特征各异,其共性是均有利于北方冷空气南下影响华南,低纬地区西太平洋副热带高压(副高)和孟加拉湾南支低槽维持少动,低层850 hPa 华南盛行西南暖湿急流;持续10 d 左右的暴雨过程相较持续3~5 d 的暴雨过程,副高位置偏西偏强,华南上空多短波槽活动,850 hPa 西南季风气流位置偏西偏北、风速偏大。
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关键词持续性暴雨   环流分型   前汛期   华南     
Abstract: Based on daily precipitation observations from 305 national weather stations over South China from 1961 to 2013 and NCEP/CFSR 6-hourly reanalysis data with 1°×1° resolution between May and June from 1980 to 2013, giving the definition of sustained torrential rain and torrential rain days during the pre-flood season in South China, we have analyzed the characteristics and the large scale circulation situation,and induced four typical circulation patterns of sustained torrential rain events. The results indicate that the sustained torrential rain events during the pre-flood season in South China mainly occur between May and June, and show a quasi-periodic oscillation of 20 years.Torrential rain in the first five years of the 1960s mostly appeared in June, from the late 1960s to 1980s much in May, from 1990s to 2013 mainly in June, and that in May clearly increased after 2006. Torrential rain event generally continues 3-4 days, and events lasting for more than 10 days only occurred 4 times. The circulation patterns that cause the sustained torrential rain during the pre-flood season in South China are classified into four types, i.e. East Asian trough bottom pattern, two ridges and one trough pattern, multi-vortex pattern and zonal pattern.Among those patterns, the East Asian trough bottom pattern and the two ridges and one trough pattern occur more frequently than other two patterns, with mainly between late May and late June. Meanwhile, the zonal pattern occur the least, with mainly between early May and early June. Different patterns of sustained torrential rain events present the different circulation characteristics at 500 hPa in the middle high latitudes. They also present general characters, including being propitious to north cold air shift southward to affect South China, West Pacific subtropical high (SH) and south branch trough over the Bay of Bengal in the low latitudes being stable, and southwest warm and wet airflow at 850 hPa dominating in South China. Compared to torrential rain events of continueing 3-5 days, those continueing about 10 days are characterized in circulation pattern by SH stretching towards west and being stronger, short wave trough being more active over South China, and southwest monsoon at 850 hPa stretching towards west and north and its wind speed being stronger.
Key wordssustained torrential rain   circulation pattern   pre-flood season   South China   
引用本文:   
.2016. 华南前汛期持续性暴雨统计特征及环流分型研究[J]. 暴雨灾害, 35(2): 109-118.
.2016. Statistical characteristics and circulation pattern of sustained torrential rain during the pre-flood season in South China for recent 53 years[J]. Torrential Rain and Disasters, 35(2): 109-118.
 
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