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暴雨灾害
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暴雨灾害  2017, Vol. 36 Issue (05): 440-452    DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1004-9045.2017.05.006
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2016年“7.9”豫北特大暴雨过程的中尺度特征分析
顾佳佳,武威
河南省漯河市气象局,漯河 462300
Mesoscale characteristics of an excessive heavy rain event in
northern Henan on 9 July 2016
GU Jiajia, WU Wei
Luohe Meteorological Office of Henan Province, Luohe 462300
 全文: PDF (16093 KB)   HTML ( 输出: BibTeX | EndNote (RIS)      背景资料
摘要 利用常规观测资料以及区域自动站资料、多普勒天气雷达产品、卫星云图、地基GPS水汽资料、闪电定位资料以及NCEP 1°×1°再分析资料,分析了2016年7月9日豫北特大暴雨过程的环流背景与中尺度对流特征。结果表明: 该过程发生在1601号台风北上、500 hPa低涡缓慢东移、200 hPa急流稳定维持的环流背景下,低层辐合、高层辐散,边界层正负温度平流对呈对称分布,对应中尺度次级环流,加强上升运动发展。大气为强对流不稳定结构,为强降水提供了能量
条件。水汽输送和辐合为暴雨提供了有利的水汽条件,湿舌伸向豫北,水汽通量高值区和水汽辐合中心对应暴雨中心;GPS可降水量(PWV)在强降水发生前急升,当 PWV迅速下降时降水强度明显减弱。强降水主要由低涡云系中不断生成发展的中尺度对流云团造成,其落区与云顶亮温(TBB)梯度大值区对应且靠近其低值中心,地闪频数峰值提前于强降水峰值1~3 h。地面高温高湿环境和冷舌的侵入对中尺度对流产生有重要作用,地面辐合线为其触发机制,长时间维持导致暴
雨发展;混合型回波列车效应明显,强回波伸展高度低于3 km,质心较低,不同于雹暴回波结构,类似于热带海洋型降水回波;雷达速度图上逆风区和辐合区多次出现。豫北特殊地形成为冷空气南下通道,低层维持东南气流,风向与山脉走向垂直,地形强迫抬升以及摩擦辐合作用使暴雨增幅。
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顾佳佳
武威
关键词特大暴雨;   GPS可降水量;   中尺度对流;   地闪特征;   地面辐合线;   地形作用     
Abstract: Based on conventional observations, data from regional automatic weather stations, Doppler weather radar data, satellite cloud images, ground based GPS/PWV data, monitoring data from lightning location instrument and NCEP/NCAR reanalysis with 1°×1° resolution, we have conducted an analysis of circulation environment and mesoscale convective feature of an excessive heavy rain event in northern Henan on 9 July 2016. The results show that it occurred under the circulation environment of the No.1601 typhoon moving northwards, the 500 hPa low vortex slowly moving eastwards and the 200 hPa jet stream stabilizing and continuing. Convergence in the low-level and divergence in the upper level, and positive and negative temperature advections in boundary layer are symmetrical distributions, which are corresponding to secondary circulations and make ascending motion strengthened. Severe convective unstable atmospheric stratification supplies a beneficial thermodynamic condition for the occurrence of severe precipitation. High value centers of water vapor flux and vapor convergence are coincident to the center of heavy rain in northern Henan. The GPS precipitable water vapor (GPS/PWV) increases rapidly before severe precipitation begins, and the severe precipitation weakens or stops when the PWV decreases rapidly. The severe precipitation is mainly
caused by mesoscale convective cloud clusters, which are continuously generated and developed among the low vortex cloud systems, corresponding to the area of big values of Temperature of Brightness Blackbody (TBB) gradient and being closed to the center of low values of TBB. At the same time, the peak value of cloud-to-ground lightening frequency appears 1-3 h ahead of the peak value of severe precipitation. The warm and wet areas in ground level and the intrusion of the θse cold tongue play an important role in the formation of mesoscale convection. The surface convergence line that triggered mesoscale convection systems and maintained for a long time causes the development of heavy rain in northern Henan. Blend echoes are characterized by the typical train effect. Strong echo extends less than 3 km high whose centroid height is low, being different from the echo structure of hailstorm but similar to the tropical marine precipitation echo. It can be found in the radar velocity charts that counter-wind zones and convergent zones emerge frequently. The special terrain in northern Henan forms a channel for the cold air moving southwards. The southeast airflow keeps in the low-level, whose wind direction is perpendicular to the orientation of mountains. Topographic forcing effect and convergence effect from friction result in an increase in rainstorm.
Key wordsexcessive heavy rain event;   GPS precipitable water vapor;   mesoscale convective;   cloud-to-ground lightening;   surface convergence line;   terrain effect   
引用本文:   
顾佳佳, 武威 .2017. 2016年“7.9”豫北特大暴雨过程的中尺度特征分析[J]. 暴雨灾害, 36(05): 440-452.
GU Jia-Jia, WU Wei .2017. Mesoscale characteristics of an excessive heavy rain event in
northern Henan on 9 July 2016[J]. Torrential Rain and Disasters, 36(05): 440-452.
 
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