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暴雨灾害  2019, Vol. 38 Issue (2): 126-134    DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1004-9045.2019.02.004
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江西一次极端雷暴大风过程的中尺度特征与成因分析
陈云辉, 许爱华, 许彬, 陈娟, 李婕
江西省气象台, 南昌 330096
Analysis on mesoscale characteristics and causes of an extreme thunderstorm gale event in Jiangxi
CHEN Yunhui, XU Aihua, XU Bin, CHEN Juan, LI Jie
Jiangxi Meteorological Observatory, Nanchang 330096
 全文: PDF (6779 KB)   HTML ( 输出: BibTeX | EndNote (RIS)      背景资料
摘要 使用常规观测资料、区域自动站资料、多普勒天气雷达资料、风廓线雷达产品以及GFS (Global Forecast System)0.5°×0.5°再分析资料,分析了2018年3月4日江西极端雷暴大风过程的中尺度特征及其成因,并探讨了该过程的极端性。结果表明:(1)该过程由强飑线横扫江西造成,飑前低压、飑锋、雷暴高压、尾流低压特征清晰。(2)飑线系统进入江西后强烈发展的有利环境条件:低层强暖湿平流、中层干空气、地面增温、低层增湿形成了"上干冷、下暖湿"异常不稳定层结;中层低槽东移、多层急流叠加、地面辐合线共同形成强抬升条件;中低层强的风垂直切变使得飑线生命史延长。(3)飑线与引导气流交角增大,移速异常加快;鄱阳湖地区平坦地形和丰富水汽都可能对地面大风产生增幅作用。(4)南昌站地面低压、下沉对流有效位能(DCAPE)、850 hPa与500 hPa温度差、925-1 000 hPa风垂直切变等物理量极端异常,与其多年旬平均差值超过2σσ为均方差),对极端雷暴大风潜势预报有一定的指示性。另外,风廓线雷达产品1.0 km以下大风速区提前雷暴大风30 min出现,高层折射率结构常数(Cn2)大幅跃升提前雷暴大风10~20 min出现,均对其临近预警有一定的参考价值。
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陈云辉
许爱华
许彬
陈娟
李婕
关键词雷暴大风   飑线   中尺度特征   不稳定   极端性     
Abstract: Using datasets of conventional observations, regional automatic weather station (AWS), Doppler weather radar, wind profile radar and GFS reanalysis with 0.5°×0.5° resolution, we have conducted analysis on the mesoscale characteristics and cause of an extreme thunderstorm gale event in Jiangxi on 4 March 2018, and discussed its extremeness. The results indicate that (1) this event is caused by a strong squall line, and pre-squall depression, squall front, rear-flow depression as well as the thunderstorm high are very clear in it. (2) The squall line developed intensely after it entered Jiangxi under a favorable environment, including the unstable stratification of dry and cold air in the high level and warm and humid air in the low level which was created by strong low-level warm and wet air advection, middle-level dry air, ground warming and low-level wetting, the strong lifting conditions formed by middle-level trough moving eastward, multi-layer jet superposition and convergence line in ground level, and the strong vertical wind shear in the mid- and low- level prolonging its life. (3) The increased angle between the squall line and the steering flow makes it move speedily, and both the flat topography around the Poyang Lake and the rich water vapor enhanced surface gale. (4) Extremely unusual values of physical variables at Nanchang station and their differences with respect to corresponding years of dekad norms exceeding 2σ (σ is root mean square), including surface depression, downdraft convective available potential energy (DCAPE), the temperature difference (T850-500) between 850 hPa and 500 hPa and the vertical wind shear from 925 hPa to 1000 hPa etc., show a good indication to the potential prediction of extreme thunderstorm gale. In addition, high wind zone below 1 km in wind-profiling radar products appears 30 min ahead, and a substantial jump of refractivity structure constant (Cn2) in the upper-level appears 10-20 min ahead. Both can be used as reference in the early warning of thunderstorm gale.
Key wordsthunderstorm gale   squall line   mesoscale characteristics   instability   extremeness   
收稿日期: 2018-08-17;
基金资助:

公益性行业(气象)科研专项(GYHY201406002);中国气象局预报员专项(CMAYBY2017-038);中国气象局预报预测核心业务发展项目(YBGJXM(2018)02-12)

通讯作者: 许爱华,主要从事天气预报相关技术与方法研究。E-mail:767634540@qq.com   
作者简介: 陈云辉,主要从事天气预报业务工作与相关研究。E-mail:278381566@qq.com
引用本文:   
陈云辉, 许爱华, 许彬,等 .2019. 江西一次极端雷暴大风过程的中尺度特征与成因分析[J]. 暴雨灾害, 38(2): 126-134.
CHEN Yun-Hui, XU Ai-Hua, XU Bin, et al .2019. Analysis on mesoscale characteristics and causes of an extreme thunderstorm gale event in Jiangxi[J]. Torrential Rain and Disasters, 38(2): 126-134.
 
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